Dead Soul Syndrome
Israel and the Church Get the 12 page PDF study here
The greatest travesty of dispensational theology is the total separation of Israel and the church. Dispensationalists teach that God has two families. The Jewish/Israelite clan that biologically descended from Abraham and the Church organized at Pentecost, ordained by Jesus, and promoted by Paul. They understand these as being distinct, separate bodies.
Dispensationalists acquired their name through their belief that God focuses His attention on one or the other of these two bodies at different time periods. In the period of OT Law God was, of course, focused on Israel. During the Temple period Gentiles could be saved (and frequently were, for instance possibly: Egyptians of the mixed multitude, Rahab of Jericho, Ruth of Moab, Naaman of Syria, Ninevites of Jonah, among others). Currently, during the dispensation (time period) of NT Grace, the theory goes that God has looked away from Israel and is focusing on the Church, which they perceive as being primarily a gentile body. Similarly, but in reverse to the past dispensation, Jews can currently be saved (and frequently are, for instance possibly: Messianic believers, Jews for Jesus, among others). In the final dispensation of the Great Tribulation, God will return His gaze toward Israel in Daniel's 70th week/Jeremiah's time of Jacob's trouble. During that period the church must be physically absent to avoid overlap and distractions. Hence, the pre-tribulational rapture of the church.
The diagram below illustrates the Dispensational theory.
This is putting over 100years of Dispensational thought into overly simplistic terms, but the clear point to remember is that Dispensational theology teaches a clear cut distinction between Israel and Church. God has two families, two wives, two different sets of children. They never overlap, they do not intermingle, they must not be confused.
God only works intensively with one group or the other. The result is that there are two bodies of God's people. One actively being managed and the other inactive but still existing.
Extreme Dispensationalism, when taken to the logical limit, produces some serious heresy. John Hagee has been known to promote two paths of salvation. The born again experience for the Church and the Jewish path by Moses for Israel. His view is in the minority and Hagee himself has recanted it when confronted. The fact that Israel is seen as a separate entity within Dispensationalism fosters this type of error, however rare.
The distinction of Church and Israel is a fundamental tenet of Dispensationalism. A pre-tribulational rapture does not make much sense without the duality of God's chosen people, an earthly race (Jews) and a heavenly race (Church).
The mistake within this view is claiming that God has two distinct groups of followers, as we will see, that simply is not true. The misunderstanding creates soteriological racism, wherein a group of people is elevated or debased due to ethnic traits and breeding. Dispensationalism is caste setting.
The Vedic caste system of India is a religiously based social stratification in which members of a particular caste level are born into it and remain fixed for life. Castes trap people into a birth place that is inescapable.
So too in Dispy thought tribulation saints are set in a caste (Israel) due to the time and place of their birth. These saints which come to salvation after the pre-trib rapture (according to the Dispensational system) have accepted Jesus for forgiveness of their sins just as we have. They are persecuted and martyred as a witness for Christ to a greater extent than many of us. Yet the saints of the Great Tribulation are excluded from the Bride of Christ because they were born in the wrong village at the wrong time. This exclusion is not based on their personal behavior or sinful choices made in life. Their being shut out from the Bride of Christ is exclusively due to their non fortuitous conversion after the rapture.
I agree with Dispy theory that there will exist a class of saved individuals who enter the kingdom and receive eternal life, who are guests at the wedding, but are not personally part of the bride of Christ. See my study on Who Enters the Millennium. The critical difference between my theory and Dispy theory is that the guests at the wedding in my theory are not part of the Bride due to their own sinful choices, procrastination and personal behavior. It is not due to the unlucky timing of their birth and hearing of the gospel.
Like all theories, Dispensationalism grew as a reaction to its environment. The predominant Christian view during the period (19th Century) when Dispy thought was forming was Amillennial Replacement theology. They have their own problems and Dispensationalism probably over corrected in counter reaction.
Replacement theology was founded by Augustine in the 5th century. It became the dominant view of the Catholic church and most big protestant denominations. In a nutshell, they teach that Israel has been cut off. In the OT the Northern kingdom of Israel continually sinned and adulterated themselves with idols. Eventually, God divorced Himself (Jer 3:8) of the wicked Samarian kingdom and sent them away into exile under the cruel Assyrian overlords. Judah was no better and did not fear when she witnessed the fate of Israel. Within about 100years, God brought destruction on Judah too. Several hundred years after that, when Israel had been re-gathered, Jesus appeared as Messiah to his people, but they rejected him and put Jesus to death.
Replacement theology teaches that the church has "replaced" Israel as the people of God. Israel is cut off, dead, never to return. As such, the modern nation state of Israel (within this system of thought) is of no purpose or meaning. There is no prophetic role for Israel/Jews to yet fulfill. The Church has inherited all of the blessings and promises that had been offered to biblical Israel. The diagram below illustrates the Replacement theory.
Replacement theology works best within historicist and preterist prophetic schemes. Most futurists will agree that national Israel and ethnic Jews still, as of today, have an unfulfilled purpose that will soon come to fruition.
Rom 11:26 famously says that all Israel will be saved at the last day. It is exegetically very difficult to force this into a replacement theology system. Israel has not been abandoned. She has been blinded according to Paul in Rom 11:7. But her refusal is not final.
The main problem with Replacement displacement is that God has not finally rejected nor ultimately turned His back on his ancient people. The covenant to Abraham was forever (Gen 17:7), and God is no Indian giver. God does not throw away one group of people and choose another group of people in their stead. The current state of Jewish refusal and rejection is due to the divine blinding that has brought in the gentiles. The Jews will, out of God's love for the patriarchs, be restored in the future.
Replacement theology probably grew out of late classical and early medieval anti-Semitism. Dispensationalism did a great service to the Christian world by correcting the grievous error of Augustine. My understanding of our Hebraic roots and what is known as Olive Tree theology would not have developed if Dispensational thought had never occurred.
I believe that national Israel still has a prophetic role to be played during the yet future Great Tribulation with a massive regathering in the Land per Ezk 36 and many other passages and ultimate revival for Messiah per Ezk 37 and many other passages. I believe that individual Jews will ultimately, as the times of the gentiles draw to a close, become saved per Rom 11:26. They will as Zechariah prophesied recognize their messiah and weep for the one that they pierced (Zech 12:10). Their salvation shall be in spite of themselves by God's great mercy and love, just like mine was.
Replacement theology does have some very good observations. They point out that the church is called "Israel" in Gal 6:16, Christians are called the "true circumcision" in Phil 3:3 and a true Jew is a believer in Jesus in Rom 2:29. This is correct. Israel has been given a new name. Their new name is Church. Much as Abram and Jacob were given new names (Abraham and Israel respectively), today Israel is called the Church. Replacement theologians understand this, but the detail that they sometimes miss, is that after the name change, the body of people is still the same organism as before the name change. It is the body of those who obey and serve God. Israel is not dead and has not been abandoned, however it is true that most ethnic Jews have ironically been individually cut off from their own family due to rebellion.
Misleadingly, the genetic offspring of Jacob, call themselves 'Israelites.' But Abraham's true offspring are those of faith, for he was the father of faith according to Gal 3:7. Idolaters and stiff-necked rebels are not the children of Abraham, genetics or not.
Paul directly confirms this is Rom 9:6-8 (NKJV):
Another words your physical birth does not matter. God reckons the spiritual birth not the bodily birth for citizenship in His national kingdom. These are clearly metonyms for salvation, but the point is that the church has become Israelites and most of fleshly Israel has been removed and disinherited from their own family so that those who are the children of the flesh, are not the children of God. Point being: just because you have the right genes doesnít mean anything. You must have the right faith. Jesus confirms this in Mat 12:46-50 when he said that his family are those who perform the will of God, not his (half) genetic siblings.
Modern Rabbinic Judaism denies the divine mission of Jesus Christ and his resurrection from the grave. According to 1 John 2:22 "Who is the liar but the one who denies that Jesus is the Messiah? This is the antichrist." Those of Jewish faith have been cut off from the olive tree. They are bound under a false religion of legalism and works. Their ancient customs of kosher diet and Sabbath keeping have become idols. Dispensationalists refuse to understand this, but modern Judaism as a religion is an anti-christ false religion of idolatry. As such, it is inappropriate to refer to unsaved Jews as the "people of God", " chosen people", "covenant people", or any similar moniker. Paul says in 1 Cor 16:22 (KJV) "If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema." To be "anathema" means to be vowed for destruction or cursed.
In the 1st century AD it was the Jewish synagogues that persecuted early Christian believers. The Jews throughout the Mediterranean basin refused to accept the messianic gospel and rigidly stuck to their now empty rituals. They frequently bore false witness against the Way and accused believers of insurrection against Roman authority. Jesus himself speaking to the church of Smyrna (one of the seven churches) says in Rev 2:9 and for emphasis He repeats himself again in 3:9 to Philadelphia that these liars and blasphemers "say they are Jews and are not, but are a synagogue of Satan." Rabbinic Judaism is a synagogue of Satan. Wow, that is powerful language. It is in the bible and Jesus Himself said it. It is incorrect for dispensationalists to think of modern Judaism as in any way related to God. Also notice that Jesus Christ said above that these liars, whose father is the devil (John 8:44), claim that they are Jews, but are mistaken. They are not really Jews, because true Jews have a covenant with God, real Jews have a relationship with the Creator. Those blasphemous liars from Satan's synagogue are cursed, anathema, cut off from Abraham.
Those cursed are persons that adhere to a broken branch; Judaism as a religion is severed from the tree. However, there remain a few who received messiah and have had their numbers bolstered by many adopted sons from the nations. An adopted son has all of the full rights of a natural son. Because there always remains a remnant, Replacement theology is incorrect, in my humble opinion, to claim that the gentile church has superseded Israel and that Israel has no prophetic future. The proof of national Israel's (even though they are cut off and dead)continued relevance for yet future prophecy is as the pudding. Proof is in the eating. So too, amazingly, Israel and Jews after 2000 years still exist as an identifiable ethnic group. The Romans and their language Latin died out centuries ago. Latin is a dead language. Romans evolved into Italians. If you were to put an ancient Roman and a modern Italian in the same room, across the table from each other, they would not be able to communicate much. (They say that French and Spanish are more similar to Italian then is Latin). Their customs and sociological behaviors would be quite different. The mighty Romans are gone and their descendants the Italians would hardly recognize them. Other ancient societies are even more thoroughly extinct. The Moabites, Edomites, Egyptians, Arameans, and Assyrians, to name just a few are utterly gone. The only items remaining of their cultures, languages and societies are to be found in museums and text books.
The Jews however are a miracle people. After thousands of years their language, culture, customs, and religion are intact and thriving. If you were to put an ancient Pharisee across the table form a modern orthodox rabbi they would surely talk fluently about legal matters of their religion and developments within their nation. They would immediately recognize each others dietary habits, Sabbath restrictions, even the hairdo and phylacteries would be common. They could easily read each others scroll of Torah. Against all odds, even through persecution and holocaust, the Jewish people have survived. Meaningless coincidence? Or relevant to a yet future calling? Since they are unique, no other culture has outlived Israel, I find this as evidence of God's providence and provision for the preservation of Israel, so that He may someday fulfill His promises to the patriarchs.
Ezekiel 37 is a famous prophecy of dry bones. The nation of Israel was in exile and ruined. God promised to bring those dry lifeless bones back together with much rattling and commotion. The bones assembled into skeletons and grew sinews and muscle tissue until they became complete bodies. However at this point, they were still dead bodies. The life giving breath of God had not yet entered into the nostrils of the corpse. I believe that dispensationalists are correct that the modern regathering of Israel into nationhood is fulfilling this prophecy before our eyes. Since 1948 Israel has grown sinew and tissue and once again has a government, economy, army and all of the facets of nationhood. However as of today, and through most of the upcoming Great tribulation, national Israel is not saved; they are not in communion with God. They are still dead bodies. This is where, in my opinion dispensationalists misjudge. Israel is a dead corpse awaiting the life-giving Spirit of resurrection. The dead are unclean. God doesn't bless and prosper dead corpses. He doesn't promise protection and take special possession of cadavers at the cemetery. The promises of protection and blessing currently belong to the church, which is the living branch of Israel. We are the adopted sons and vibrantly full of spiritual life. At today's point in time, the only promise that ethnic, national Israel can claim is that of an upcoming resurrection from the dead. When those dry bones with added sinew receive the messiah and are re-born into true life, then Israel will live and be able to claim God's many promises to her along with the rest of us.
Dispensationalists frequently go over the top when they claim that Jews are still currently God's people. Jews for the most part reject Jesus as the Christ. For this they are cut off, lifeless dry bones, and are not the elect or the chosen people. Peter says that the title "chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, Godís special possession" now goes to gentiles who had been "called out of darkness" living in Turkey (1 Pet 2:9 NIV). God's family always honors and loves the true messiah. Unsaved Jews do not qualify. The Jewish race has potential and will not go extinct, but most Hebrew people are currently outside of the covenant of the Lord.
I believe that the correct, most biblical understanding of the relationship between church and Israel is to realize that God has only one family. They are people, regardless of ethnicity, that honor his Word, his Truth, his Messiah. The singular tree trunk of God's family has many branches, some have been cut off due to rebellion and unbelief and others have been grafted in because of repentance and obedience. The Olive Tree theory of Israel-church bonding is explained by Paul in Rom 11.
The predominant hermeneutic of the Olive Tree theory is that God has one single people. We are a unified, continuous family. Individual people are grafted in and pruned out based on their personal behavior and response to the Holy Spirit. God has not wholesale and finally rejected genetic Hebrews, but neither has He retained those that kiss not the son (Ps 2:12). God has only one single people. As stated in Rom 10:12 "there is no distinction between Jew and Greek." Dispensationalism creates a false distinction.
The diagram below illustrates the Olive Tree theory.
In John 10:16 Jesus said "And other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they will hear My voice; and there will be one flock and one shepherd." Praise God, we are those other sheep. We have been melded into the flock of Israel.
Paul calls the uncircumcised (gentile) believers of the Galatian church "the Israel of God" in Gal 6:16; Christians of Ephesus are called "citizens of Israel" in Eph 2:12; this is because believers honor the character of the Creator, whereas ethnic Israel was stiff-necked and blind to the gospel. The "true Jew" is one of any nationality who is circumcised in the heart, as opposed to those circumcised in the flesh (Rom 2:29). Ex-Gentile believers in Galatia have become "Abraham's seed" and "heirs to Abraham's promise" (Gal 3:29). In the Revelation 1:6, John addresses the seven gentile churches of Asia (Turkey) as God's "kingdom of priests", clearly echoing the exact same phrase applied to Israel in Exodus 19:6. Believing women throughout provinces of modern day Turkey (gentiles) are called "daughters of Sarah" in 1Pet 3:6. In Eph 3:6 Paul tells us that the gentiles are "fellow members of the body and fellow partakers of the promise."
God's family started long ago. Abraham was the father of Faith and frequently considered to be a tap root of this towering tree. In his vein followed Job, Moses, David, Isaiah and many others. Along the path of Israelite history, many individuals from the Northern and Southern kingdoms were pruned out due to rebellion and unbelief. When pruned, a branch is severed from the root which provides nourishment and life. A pruned branch will die, another words that individual will not receive eternal life which is a gift only available in God. However even during the bleakest periods of immorality and wickedness, God always keeps a remnant, just as he maintained 7000 who did not worship the Baalim in the days of Elijah.
When Jesus was rejected and crucified by his own ethnic people, God's family tree of faith did not fall. He did not reassign a new nation into the place where Israel had been. He did not initiate another people to run concurrently alongside Israel. Israel has always been and will always be the only family tree. However, God did some serious gardening work. Many Jews and most of Israel were cut off, although this was done individually according to the grace afforded each person. A cadre of Jewish believers remained (the 120 in the upper room and the early Jerusalem church under James). They became the direct connection to the root of Abraham and the life giving sap that flows up from the roots. The tree surely became rather small after all of those many thousands of shoots were torn off in the early first century.
Between the Before Christ period and the Anno Domini period, what is the difference between Israel and Church? Absolutely nothing. It is a continuation of the tree of God's life. Before the advent of Messiah, salvation was achieved by repentance and faith that the LORD would provide redemption as symbolized through the sacrifices. After the mission of Jesus had been completed, salvation is now achieved by repentance and faith that Jesus is the sacrifice promised by the LORD for our redemption. Same thing-no difference, except tense of the verb. God's family tree has always been characterized by repentance, humility and faith. Those without these traits are pruned and tossed onto the burn pile for destruction.
The tree that we call the olive tree of God's family IS Israel with Abraham at its root. Although so many of the natural twigs have been removed, it must look like a foreign mutant. Replacement theology is wrong to claim that Israel died and the Church took over. Although they are generally correct when they note that the church is Israel. Dispy theology is wrong to claim that unsaved Israel still has a covenant of any type or any claim toward the people of God. Although they are generally correct when they note that God's promises to Israel will by His grace be fulfilled in spite of themselves.
My point is that there is no difference between gentile church of NT and the good Israelite remnant of OT that have not forsaken God. Paul tells us in Eph 4:4-6 "There is one body and one Spirit, just as you were called to one hope when you were called; one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all." Again Paul taught in 1 Corinthians 12:13, "For by one Spirit were we all [Jewish and Gentile Believers] baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free, and we were all made to drink of one Spirit."
This is not because the church has superseded Israel. This is because gentile believers are adopted into the family of Israel. To claim that Israel and Church are different is to claim that Christians are step children, not fully integrated with the rights and privileges of sons. Instead of Israel becoming gentile due to a large influx of gentile believers, the gentiles should become Israelites, because it is their olive tree into which we are grafted. This is why an we should have an acute interest in Hebraic roots, learning Hebrew language and culture, and understanding Jewish history and custom. We have become Israelites and we must continue the sap flowing from the Patriarchal roots.
In 1Cor 12:2 Paul addressing the Corinthian church says: "You know that you were Gentiles, carried away to these dumb idols." The Greek verb is past tense. He says that they had been gentiles. They used to be gentiles. They started off as gentiles who were also idol worshippers. But now they are no longer idol worshippers. They are no longer gentiles. They are ex-gentiles, because they have been adopted and grafted into the family of Israel. Yet these Corinthian believers had not been circumcised nor received as proselytes into Judiasm, but none the less, Paul considers them as if part of Israel, sharing in the blessings of Abraham. All Christian believers are Israelites. We are no longer gentiles; we are no longer heathen; we are no longer bastards (mamzer); now we are sons of Israel. This is the unity of the olive tree.
The most notable consequence of the Olive Tree relationship between Israel and Church are seven fold.
First, It should develop a love for the Hebrew People and all things Jewish. Even though they are cursed and blinded and cut off from the tree's source of life, they are our estranged kinfolks. Don't we all have lost family members? So too is the house of Israel-ethnic Jews. As the Apostle Paul yearned to bring the message of salvation to his own tribe, even die for them, that they may be saved (Rom 9:3, 10:1), likewise we should serve the natural disinherited branches and learn their ancient customs without repeating their mistakes. Since gentile believers have become partakers of the Jewish covenants and blessings, we must show our gratitude with reciprocal generosity. In Rom 15:27 Paul says "For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them to minister unto them in carnal things." We love and serve the Hebrew people even though they have been separated from the root and will ultimately die without regrafting. I have great hope for the people of the Jewish religion that they will soon receive their own scriptures with an open heart and without malice. Who knows?! Perhaps Jesus will return very soon and these withering shoots will become the vibrant green growth of the Millennial spring.
Second, Olive Tree theology should and be pro-Zionist with a heart for the plight of Arabs. God made a promise to restore the Hebrew people to the very same land that Abraham camped within. Even though those people currently curse his holy Name, God will honor his word eventually. We should respect God's promise and serve as a vessel for its fulfillment. It is exciting to see the fulfillment of Ezekiel's prophecy in our time. However, our vessel must be pure without malice to Arab neighbors. That piece of real estate between Egypt and Syria will become Kingdom HQ during the Millennium and beyond. Zionism is a regathering of Jewish people into this historic region. It has prophetic significance for the upcoming last stand of the beast and for the Second Coming of the righteous King. Christians should be pro-Israel (modern nation state) and pro-Zionism (Jewish immigration) with common sense boundaries against abuse. In a recent Christianity Today article, David Brickner, head of Jews for Jesus, said: "Israel should seek a peaceful settlement not based on present divine right, but on principles of justice, mercy, and practical feasibility." Christian Zionists must be careful not to trample the personal rights of the Arabs who currently inhabit the space and are equally loved by God. Jesus died for Palestinians, just as much as He died for Jews. A regathering of Hebrew people into the biblical land has prophetic consequence. We should pray, Maranatha, for the soon coming of Jesus (1Cor 16:22), so we should support stage setting for that event.
Third, the Olive Tree analogy should
grow a love for the physical land of Israel.
God's promise to restore the Hebrew people, also includes numerous
blessings upon the physical land. After all, we are Israelites
and heirs to this very promise. Christian tourism of the Holy Land is a great
aid to understanding the content and history of the bible. It is highly
recommended for all believers to visit and tour Jerusalem and vicinity. I used
to live there. The land itself is rugged and beautiful. The deep rich
history of 1000ís of years is tasteable. I love the Israeli culture; the
language, the customs, the food, the people and land. There is nothing better
for lunch than a falafel from a street vender along Ben Yehuda Street with extra
tachina, please. I would be happy to return to Jerusalem and live there if I
could talk my wife into it (wonít happen).
Fifth, This understanding of a singular family makes it less likely that God will rapture away one of his families and leave the other family (trib siants) to suffer in the Great Tribulation. Christians living before the Great Tribulation are no better and no different than tribulation period saints. We are the tribulation saints and the tribulation saints are church and Israel. There is no reason to remove the church by rapture because the church is Israel. There is no reason to remove the believing gentiles, but leave behind trib saints for persecution, because those gentiles have become true Jews circumcised in the heart. Olive Tree theology removes a key doctrinal underpinning for a pre-tribulational rapture. See my full study about the rapture for complete details.
Sixth, per Rom 9:6-8 only "the children of the promise are counted as the seed", should assist with interpretation of several OT prophecies concerning the Last Days. Instead of national unsaved Israel playing a key role in the Great Tribulation, I believe the Church, the true Israel is the reference to these upcoming future events. See my study of Dan 9:27 about the "treaty with many." This future tribulation period treaty is not with those who falsely call themselves Israel, it is with the true seed of Abraham, those of faith.
Seventh and final point of completion to learn from this teaching, is for all believers to remain humble and respectful of the judgmental power of God. He cuts out disobedient braches. He will not tolerate blasphemy. Some theologians in favor of eternal security, have claimed that this passage only speaks of grafting in groups of people. But Paul says:
You will be cut off, IF you do not continue in Christ. The olive tree symbol represents salvation. Being a part of the tree represents life in the resurrection. Individual people are added and cut based on their own personal behavior, not nations. God will never cut off the gentiles from eternal life as a group wide decision; yet Paul says: Watch out! Lest you be cut off. Paul is not speaking to groups, he is speaking to individuals. God has not adopted America into the body of Christ, but He has adopted many Americans. God has not rejected Israel as a branch, but he has pruned out many Israelites. Salvation and pruning are done individually not corporally. I don't intend here a discourse on eternal security, but my final point is that believers whether Jew or Gentile must worship God reverently with fear and awe (Heb 12:28) and understand His hatred of sin.
So in conclusion, the Dispensational idea that God has two families which he focuses attention upon one at a time in varying dispensations is fundamentally flawed. There is only one single tree of Life- that is Israel. We have become sons of Abraham and we are all in the same boat. We are all twigs on the same tree. Likewise, acknowledging that God will redeem the natural branches (Jews) in His due time, makes replacement theology unpalatable. It is anti-Semitic. It is culturally anti-Jewish. It bites the hand that fed them.
The most biblical model of the relationship between Israel and church is found within the Olive Tree analogy, directly from Romans 11.
-God's family tree of life is based on personal faith, per Abraham's faith.
-Many wicked Israelites of OT were cut off from inheritance. Most modern Jews deny Jesus and hence disenfranchise themselves.
-Many righteous gentiles have been adopted as sons with equal rights to natural born sons.
-Good Israelites of OT and redeemed church of NT are one in unity of God's people.
-There is no distinction between Jew and Greek within the family. The graft bud took with perfection. No scar. No second class branches.
-Unsaved Jews have no covenant, no relationship, no promises. This is what it means to be cut off.
-At some point in the future, God will draw the biological descendants of Jacob into repentance and faith. This is God's promise to save the children of his good friend Abraham.
-Although not mandatory, there is great wisdom and blessing in studying and participating in Hebrew roots and culture.
-Without distinction between church and Israel, a pre-tribulational rapture becomes less likely.
-OT End Times prophecies must be interpreted in this light, so that the prime focus is on the church, not ethnic Jews.
-In every generation of every age, God actively manages the pruning of his family tree. Disobedient persons are disinherited and cast off to die, while repentant persons are adopted as sons.
For questions contact me at jay "at" deadsoulsyndrome "dot" com.